by Craig Coussins

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"The book "Bonsai School" was in my mailbox two days ago. The best thing I can say about the book is that after just a couple of pages I started saying to myself, " I didn't know that". After 23 years of bonsai it was great to see a book that was teaching me new things page after page. The book is a beautiful book. It is the first book that I believe that I could use "as is" as a text book to teach a very complete course on bonsai. I'm not certain how you will produce a "College of Bonsai" but I want a copy as soon as it's off the press. It is going to be a very successful book with a long shelf life at the stores."

Joe Day
Bonsai Teacher, Alabama

From Publishers Weekly
With colour photographs on almost every page, Coussin's guide forms a lovely and thorough introduction to the ancient art of bonsai gardening. The book covers every aspect of the art, from choosing a plant and a pot to training a bonsai with wiring and pruning techniques. In addition to introductory sections on the evolution of bonsai and the relation between bonsai gardening and Buddhism, the book contains dozens of short articles by experienced bonsai gardeners from around the world. Italian Bonsai artist,  Patrizia Capellaro, for example, explains how to style a large juniper bonsai, while American Lit Van Phan analyzes how the miniature landscape style Hon Non Bo reflects the larger landscapes of Viet Nam. This is an excellent manual for anyone eager to try his or her hand at a hobby that just might offer "a lifelong path to enlightenment," as Coussins suggests,

Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information, Inc.
Ramification of Bonsai
Author - Craig Coussins


How to develop twig structure

One of the most important lessons in developing Bonsai is the one involving branch and twig structure.

The health of the tree depends on your ability to create more and more twigs which of course hold the leaves that allow the tree to breathe.

The physiological advantages of more twigs and branches mean that more and more fine root development takes place and the tree has a solid base to stand on. Roots also help define twigs.

The artistic value of a tree with plenty of fine twigs, buds, branches and roots advertises your ability as a Bonsai grower or in slightly less grand terms, as a grower of miniature trees.

Beginners or less experienced growers are concerned in the first year with either accumulation of material or accumulation of knowledge. The former gets themselves into a situation where they have too many trees and subsequently few if any of these trees gets individual attention. The natural progression of this hobbyist is then to spend loadsamoney on imported stock which at least looks something like a Bonsai because they have hundreds of other things in pots, so called 'Potensai', which will never become Bonsai because they do not have time to look after and turn all that 'stuff', into Bonsai. This becomes a vicious circle or perhaps that's a Viscous mess.

The latter enthusiast tries to maintain a small selection of trees of around 10 to 15 that allows them to try out different techniques read in books written by experienced Bonsai growers.

On a philosophical level the appearance of a finely twigged deciduous Bonsai or a dense pine gives you a feeling of peace. Bonsai arose from the art of meditation and as we all soon come to realise when attending our Bonsai; time quickly passes when your working on these little trees.

These notes are to enable you to start the process of Ramification and if anyone wishes to go further into this then please write to me care of this magazine and I will endeavour to assist you.

What I would like to discuss over the next couple of pages are two species of tree popular with growers, Pine and Maple.  If you don't like the article then I must recommend an excellent book called 'How to stuff a Chicken'.


Lets look at the Scots Pine (pinus Sylvestris) to start with. When these trees are either collected or bought in garden centres they invariably have long branches with little or no twig structure. The technique for back budding to develop twigs is quite straightforward.

From May until June the tree grows candles. Starting at the bottom of the tree, or the weaker lower branches, pluck out 50% of the candle with your fingers by holding the bottom of the candle to stop it being broken of the tree and pull the rest with your other hand...if you have only one hand then introduce a friend to the delights of plucking.

(Leave all obviously weak buds alone and if the branch has only weak buds wait until they have swollen but if this has not occurred by the second week in June or late Spring then get on with the other branches.)

A week later pluck the next layer of branches in the same way and work your way up to the, by now, vigorous top area.

Using both hands hold base of bud and pluck 50% of balance.

The reason you do this on Scots and indeed all two needle Pines is that as the stronger growth is at the top of the tree, should you start to pluck there then all the tree's energy would go to that point to repair the damage and would therefore bypass the weaker areas which could result in eventual loss within the weaker areas.

Interestingly enough however is the reverse when pruning five needle Pines where you start at the top instead of the bottom as the tree is less likely to abort its weaker, lower branches.

The White Pine pinus parviflora / pentaphyilla has a very specialised series of auxin channels or flow lines that require the stronger buds to be trimmed first. The new growth is much softer than the two needle pines and unlike these, the five needle pines can be pruned back quite hard after the needles have broken. If you feel the difference between the needle varieties you will see what I mean.

Back buds created on Pines through this technique.

At this point I will mention a couple of other techniques which can be considered in Pine Ramification such as Inarch and Approach Grafting. I will talk about these areas later.

Back to two needle pines. The next thing to look out for is the formation of twin buds. Pluck the longer bud and wait until the smaller bud has grown longer than the plucked bud then remove the first bud and reduce the new bud by half but in the same weekly regime. At no time leave more than two buds on any growth point.

I am not going to talk about needle plucking in this article but suffice to say, after you have needle plucked during the following growing season you will probably get little pockets of Witches Brooms. You must therefore reduce this multiple growth to the one or two buds that are important in you overall plan.


Be sure to water well between this plucking as you are looking for vigour. If you withhold water at this crucial time you will reduce the needles but at the expense of ramification. Never reduce the needles until you have structure as the tree will not have enough ability to photo synthesise or develop root structure. Have patience.

If you pot your Pines in a classic Pine soil, well drained and porous with no more than 40% organic material you will help the roots develop correctly. However in some countries such as Scotland we have a lot of rain and one excellent tip given to me many years ago by that well known teacher, Ruth Stafford Jones, was to tilt the pot on a small piece of wood to drain the water away. Always remember to change the direction of the tilt in severely inclement weather though.

Leader Buds

The next thing to be aware of is after these new buds have developed keep the leader bud at the end of that branch short or the sap will bypass the new bud to feed the strongest bud.

You can remove the entire leader bud if you have strong back buds but be very careful if these buds are weak or you will lose the entire branch or twig if you remove the leader.

To get smaller leaves pluck out the centre of the buds as they start to form.

If you leave it too late then it will not have that effect.

You can then continue however to pluck out during spring all the centre buds on the branches you are happy with as far as length is concerned. This in turn develops fine twigs.

Established Trees

On a future point; should you have established the tree and reduced the needles, etc., then you can remove 75% of the candles to maintain and build dense pads. This also applies to White Pine, pinus parviflora.

As the tree starts to shape up over the next three or four years look at the inner buds on each branch and when bud plucking start the plucking on the inner buds first and five days later do the outer buds starting on the next upper layer a week later. Although this does increase the actual plucking time by 75% you will soon see the difference. Maintenance pruning of buds is done when the tree has been relatively completed and although similar in technique goes back to the basic plucking by doing one layer of branches at a time covering all the buds at the same time on each layer and progressing each week upwards.


Feed every two weeks with high nitrogen fertiliser from bud break and then in July feed with a balanced feed and in September with a low nitrogen or Tomato fertiliser. The high N. feeds the leaves and buds and the low feeds the twigs, roots, trunk and branches.

Spray with a foliar feed such as Miracle Grow etc. every two weeks in spring and with water mist the foliage throughout the warm weather to keep the humidity up.


If Pines are the Kings of Bonsai then surely the glorious Maple must be the Queen.

In the late Meiji Period when Samurai and Lords turned to the Arts of Japan, Bonsai were often compared to people.

"The delicate tracery of twigs on an elegant maple in the winter with the promise of buds ready to burst into lusty growth. Oh but what growth. Soft tiny leaves glowing with warm colour swelling into full firm contours until you are overwhelmed with passion for this most lovely of things and then after her final glorious colour has fallen away and you are confronted by this magnificent apparition naked and proud the ramification tracing out the shape of summer passed and memories of happy and warm days !


I grow all sorts of maples in all sorts of styles. I get deep and detailed ramification using reasonably simple techniques.

Species easiest to work on are the green leafed types such as pure Japanese Maple (acer palmatum), and Trident Maple (a.buergerianum)

I suggest that as the Yastsubusa varieties are more delicate do not leaf prune these types unless you are sure that they can take it. Varieties such as acer palm. Atropurpureum, are sometimes weak and not easy to back bud do not leaf prune this colour group which is deep red to purple. You develop this variety through Bud pinching.

Kiyohime are by nature very dense but as they are stronger at the sides keep the side growth down or the upper portion will die back and you will have a bald tree.

All maples will leaf burn if you put them out into the normal windy weather of springtime. The time to put them out is when the soft leaf becomes firm and hard. So keep them in a sheltered area away from wind if possible. If you can not do this then grow other species or build a shelter!!

The easiest technique is to remove all last year's growth from the structure during December getting back to the basic branch and twig structure. Remove all non essential growth and seal all tips.

Author - Craig Coussins

The Maple Year
Author - Craig Coussins

SEND THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND article quoting Craig

The Maple Year

To facilitate readers in other countries I have used seasons as well as UK months. Please remember that you must take into consideration the variables found within temperature in your own country.

Early Spring (February to March)
Although you can repot almost anytime this is the optimum period for the majority of Maples. Kashima and Kiyohime will have started to move at this time. Make sure they are protected. / Feed o.10.10. (Zero Nitrogen) every 7 days to stop lush growth but only after the buds have opened.

Throughout Spring (March to May)
Start plucking out the bud centres

Early Summer (June)
After the first two feeds start feed High Nitrogen feed to build stamina on young trees. If you want good Autumn colour cut down your High Nitrogen food. If tree is healthy then consider full or partial defoliation. This can be followed with selective wiring. Remember that the tree will have to be looked after as the same as February to May or Spring. The problem in Summer defoliation is Sun Burn rather than winds.

Mid Summer (July)
Wire trees with Cage (not tight) or protected wire and do any major pruning at this time during summer dormancy. Reduce feeding until mid August or late mid summer.

Late Summer (August)
Start a weekly feed with low Nitrogen food. Last time for defoliation before fall.

Early Autumn / Fall (September)
Trim all leaves that grow out of the planned shape. Stop feeding if leaves start to change colour. It should be noted that good fall colour is achieved with little of no feed....but the question is whether or not you want to risk the tree's health for a short term benefit.

Autumn / Fall (October)
Complete your feeding with low or Zero Nitrogen Feed

Late Autumn / Early Winter (November)
Remove any dead leaves and make sure that the trees are protected against winter frosts and wind.

Winter (December to January)
This is the other time when you can perform major surgery on your Bonsai.

Author - Craig Coussins


Books and Articles
by Craig Coussins

All articles are well illustrated and feature a great deal of information that should allow you to learn or understand most of the issues that you need to grow Bonsai and Penjing correctly.

Bonsai School

Books by Craig Coussins

Bonsai for Beginners
Bonsai School
Growing Bonsai
Totally Bonsai
Bonsai Masterclass
Bonsai Handbook
  in US Dollars

     UK GBP



November 2008: The publishers have brought out a paperback novel size Handbook on Bonsai. This is not listed in Amazon just yet.





Two articles on Trees Sensing Danger

Do trees recognise danger? Do they hurt?

I heard a broadcaster, Ann Swithenbank on a weekly gardening programme at the beginning of February talking about her hatred of Bonsai .Ms Swithenbank felt that bonsai artists were torturing the trees and that they should be left alone to develop into a full size tree. Well everyone is entitled to their opinion, and despite many hundreds of thousands of enthusiasts worldwide, and despite the fact that growing small trees are part of some people’s national culture. MS Swithenbank happily ranted against the entire hobby.  Ms Swithenbank then went on to decry Bonsai growers who display their collection on Benches. I am not sure if this is much different from growing Pot plants on benches in a greenhouse or outside. Or perhaps growing any plant in a pot is offensive to some people. I am sure that this is the case. Well bonsai growers actually have a life and their dedication in the hobby can be just as interesting as any other part of the human need for hobbies and pastimes. Not according to Ms Swithenbank who has just stated that Bonsai growers are cruel. I do not see why this should be a valid point of view though. To prune and keep the shape is not a great deal of difference to mowing a lawn, pruning a hedge or any other technique to keep something in shape and to keep the plant healthy and full of vigour. 

I don’t think that the Japanese art of Bonsai, the Chinese art of Penjing , never mind the tray landscapes of Vietnam and the knowledge handed down over thousands of years from father to son and daughter should be so easily cast aside by someone in such a powerful position as a television and radio presenter. For Ms Swithenbank to damage the reputation of growers and enthusiasts all over the world is less than savoury. Ms Swithenbank is a well known and talented horticulturist so why she has chosen to attack a large segment of her admirers and denigrate an entire hobby is somewhat less than pleasant.#

Craig Coussins 2007

A bonsai is grown, created, styled, developed and made into a stunning miniature representation of a mature tree. A bonsai can be grown from a seed or shaped from a larger collected tree. The collected tree is usually struggling as a living plant and ideal collected trees may have perhaps one or two living branches while the rest of the tree and perhaps part pf the trunk, being dead. These dead elements are shaped by a master into shapes that illustrate the struggle the tree has had in nature. . However, if the tree is not carefully put into excellent soil, has its buds nipped back, pruned and cut, the tree will not survive. After all whet is a dead tree but a dead tree.  
Shohin and Mame no more than six inches high

The size surprises some people with collected and grown trees being anywhere from a few inches to over 2 metres. In nature there re natural Bonsai, where the growth has been subjected to severe wind, damaging falls of snow, freezing temperatures or blistering sun. All depends on the country and climate of course. Left there, these trees would eventually expire. The bonsai grower carefully studies the tree, checks the root growth and after careful lifting, brings the ailing tree back to their new home.  Without the horticultural knowledge then the collected tree would inevitably die.

Collecting trees and shrubs has been part of horticultural knowledge gathering for centuries.  Based on that knowledge horticulturist have gained their extensive experience. Bonsai growers simply make a tree that they grow a very happy tree and as you can always see at an exhibition or in their gardens. A note to Ms Swithenbank: The RHS would not have supported this hobby by allowing the venerable Bonsai author and grower, Peter Chan to mount a wonderful permanent exhibition at Wisley if they actually agreed with Ms Swithenbank point of view. . Yes it is a point of view but some points of view should be kept very quiet if it offends a huge part of the society that Ms Swithenbank lives in. I reiterate that she is in a powerful position and should know better than to alienate her fans and the programmes fan base.

Craig Coussins.

Bonsai grower, author of five best selling books on Bonsai and a fan of Anne Swithenbank



Do trees sense danger?

The giant Sequoia Sequoiadendron Gigantium  will have cones on its branches for fifty years and more but only shed the seed if it feels threatened by fire, A common event in old woodlands. Indeed most trees when sensing danger in its environment start to conserve energy and  shed seed. Indeed when some species such as Larch, Larix Decidua, are threatened they will start to put on copious amounts of cone and the energy expended in that will probably kill it but not until the seed has a chance to disperse. There is a saying we have in English called ‘going to seed’. That means that when trees are stressed they will start to put on their seed making hats and go forth and multiply.

In Bonsai it is sometimes the season near that trees end game that we look for when collecting a tree from the wild,. The tree may well be very old, have a large trunk and a lot of dead brunches but with the one or two living branches but covered in cones or seed pods that we can decide if we can save it or let it go. If we save it then we have a natural tree with a lot of age and something that we as artists can work up to make a wonderful old looking tree. Its all part of the art of Bonsai.

So as a grower of nearly 40 years I can see that trees do have a sense of danger when threatened and they will protect their gene pool or species by ‘going to seed’.  Is that an instinct? In fact why should we not consider that trees have feelings? It may not be feelings that we as animals would recognise perhaps . In most cases plants that do seed will know when they are being stressed and they will be able to something about it. Is that instinctive? If it was a animal that we recognise we would say that was the case but for some reason we seem less able to accept that a plant can feel danger and do something about it.

Mr Kimura pt this band of Tape on the pot to hold in the water. The nebari is pretty solid on this huge pine and water needs to filter through and not roll off the surface of the pot.

Botanists at Rutgers University infected some tobacco plants with a virus. Within a few days, tobacco plants that were near the infected ones sensed the danger of the virus and then produced a chemical in their leaves that would protect themselves from the virus. The infected tobacco leaves gave off a chemical odour that the healthy leaves sensed, thus triggering their defensive mechanism. Plants, animals and humans can sense fear or danger through a fine sense of smell or odour detection. Some do it through sensing subtle vibrations. Finely tuned standard senses may explain some psychic powers certain people seem to have.

John Z. Kiss, Professor of Horticulture and now at Rutgers says: Plants rely on sophisticated mechanisms to interpret the constant bombardment of incoming signals so they can adjust their growth accordingly.

Kiss J.Z. 2006. Up, down, and all around: how plants sense and respond to environmental stimuli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 103: 829–830

Other sources include:

Books such as "Bonsai School" Bonsai Masterclass, The Bonsai Handbook and "Growing Bonsai" are guides to you learning this craft. Search on Amazon or any Internet Bookseller

A Critique on Craig Coussins Recent book: Bonsai School.

To introduce myself: I am one of  South Africa's Bonsai Masters. I recently published a book on the 'Bonsai Styles of the World'. This book is selling well at the moment and is distributed by Stone Lantern who also publish Bonsai Today Magazine.

I wished to give a short critique on Craig Coussins latest book "The Bonsai School", published by Silverdale books, 2002 and Sterling ,USA in 2003.
I found it a very impressive and large book which is beautifully illustrated with numerous colour photos, many taken by the author.
The philosophical approach of the writer can be found through out the book which make it just that more interesting.

The author has asked many famous Bonsai masters from America, Canada, South Africa, UK, Italy, China, Vietnam, New Zealand,  and many more too numerous to mention, to share with the reader the benefit of their own experience.

Personally I found the chapter on the design classes the most interesting,
but the book is full of excellent advice for all levels of bonsai growers.

Craig travels all over the world teaching Bonsai and he shares his experiences with the reader in a very enthusiastic way.

A wide range of subjects, from the origin of bonsai, the evolution over the centuries and much more is covered. He also explains the fascination of Chinese Penjing (Bonsai) as practised in China to the reader.
Craig also gives handy guidelines on basic needs for a number of most popular trees normally used for bonsai.
He discusses shelving and placing of trees, the caring of trees, soil mixes
for different trees, repotting, and many more subjects and techniques.
This book is a must for the advanced Bonsai grower as well as the novice as it not only beautifully illustrates how to create Bonsai but explains interesting techniques step by step.
I can definitely recommend the book to all bonsai lovers.
Charles Ceronio
South Africa 

In the early development of Bonsai in the West, there was little in the way of information for new enthusiasts practising bonsai; bonsai had no established base of practitioners as there was in Japan and China and very little in the way of written material. The internet was still many years from conception.

For the modern enthusiast however, there are a profusion of books, magazines and of course the internet, covering every aspect of Bonsai culture. Unfortunately, along with the good, there have also been an equal number of poorly written, poorly illustrated publications that seem to simply serve confusion and conflicting advice amongst beginners of this Art. Many books aimed at novices, have simply repeated the basic horticultural guidelines of bonsai without taking the reader onto the more complex, but far more interesting and rewarding aspect of bonsai design.

This is where The Bonsai School comes in. Outwardly, a large, glossy book (with over 250 pages and many pictures), it starts on a gentle amble through basic horticultural principles for bonsai, species information, a bonsai calendar and care guidelines. All very competently written and explained with some truly inspirational trees. Where this book excels is that it then takes the reader onto the creation and design of bonsai. There is so much to learn for not only the novice but also the advanced enthusiast.

The basic premise of The Bonsai School is that rather being written by just one author, explaining his own personal outlook on bonsai, it features a large array of articles, demonstrations and trees by a wide variety of very talented artists. The collation of all this knowledge results in a far more comprehensive book.

Craig Coussins (a very talented bonsai artist in his own right) travelled throughout America and Europe to work and photograph bonsai artists in their own gardens while they designed projects for The Bonsai School.

Parts One and Two of The Bonsai School deals with the basics of bonsai containing sound horticultural advice for both the novice and more experienced enthusiast alike. It also contains what has to be the most comprehensive account of Bonsai through history I have seen by both Craig Coussins and Robert J. Baran

Part Two is a course that deals with the creation of bonsai, including well illustrated accounts of various methods and techniques necessary for the care and cultivation, as well as the creation, of Bonsai.

Part Three is where the book really comes into it's own. We are treated to photo series' of demonstrations by Gary Marchal, Joe Day, Patrizia Capellaro, John Hanby, Valerio Gianotti, Tony Tickle, Michael Persiano, William Valavanis to name just a few! Each demonstration is well photographed, many by Craig Coussins, clearly explaining and illustrating a wide variety of techniques. Craig has kindly allowed Bonsai4me to feature one such demonstration by Italian Master, Salvatore Liporace, styling a Juniper. To see this example of The Bonsai School's photo series, please visit here.

Finally, part four comprehensively deals with bonsai pots, bonsai tools and an in-depth look at Suiseki or viewing stones including an article by renowned collector Felix Rivera.

Altogether, a very inspiring book that warrants repeated reading just to allow all the new information and techniques to sink in! Craig is reportedly releasing The Bonsai College in a couple of years, whether he can improve on this first book in the series, I don't know!






Buying from Nurseries
Insects and Disease

A glossary of tools used in Bonsai

Outdoor Bonsai:
How to Water
Problem Solver

Shari and Jin
Tools and use
Carving Demos

Formal Upright
Mini Bonsai Styles
Informal Upright
Rock Planting
Making a Larch Group
Making a Group on a Slab
Making a Large Group
Making a Small Group

Other Styles:

Planting on Rocks:
Bonsai on Rocks
Making a Chinese Scene
Making Natural Scenes - Grand Canyon
Koos Le Roux

Basic Repotting
Repotting a medium size tree (Fukien Tea)
One-Sided Roots
Finding the right size and style of pot
Large Pine
Small to Medium Pine


Chinese Gardens:
Features of Chinese Gardens
Stone Features
Story of Chinese Garden Design

Japanese Gardens:
Plans and Buildings
Stones and Gravel
Water and Bridges

European Gardens:
Spain-water and stone
Coolness and Tranquillity
Colour in Oriental Gardens: Berries, Leaves and Flowers


Books by Other Authors

Man Lung Penjing
This links you to a very extensive Penjing page that I have created around Manlung Penjing

Authors Please note: if you would like your book listed on this website I require both the book for a critique and some digital images to create the link for your book. This will help sell your books faster

Available Now!

The definitive reference work on Ficus for bonsai. The book is a hardcover, 8.25 by 10.25 inch volume, with 144 pages in color, containing detailed information for the beginner as well as the advanced hobbyist.

This is a limited printing of 2000 copies, numbered and signed by the author.
Click here for more information 

Jerry is one of Americas leading exponents of Indoor, semi tropical and tropical Bonsai. A leading authority on Ficus, he has written a 'must have' book for growers of Ficus and for anyone that wishes to grow these fascinating trees. I have seen and worked with figs all over the world and because of that background I recommend Jerry's book as the most important element for your knowledge. I am delighted to announce that Jerry is to feature on my new book on Bonsai techniques that is due out late 2005.

Jerry Website:

Email him for copies of this excellent limited edition book:

Trip Photographs from New Zealand Singapore and Australia 

I spent six weeks in this region and took over three thousand images of wonderful trees, Penjing and Bonsai. These will be mounted over the Christmas 2003 period but in the meantime here are some general shots of my demos and workshops. I hope you like these.

Articles: Underlined are ready


  1. Cryptomeria
  2. Larch
  3. Maple
  4. Ramification
  5. White Pine
  6. Chinese Penjing

I am working on the following sections
right now.

Bending Branches
Shari and Jin
Twin Trees
Broom Style
Displaying Bonsai
Interesting Trees
Group Planting
Warm Climate Bonsai - 'Indoor Bonsai'
Trees and Roots
Yamadori - Collected Trees
Work in Progress
Making a Slab
Other Projects

Your First Bonsai Tree:
Indoor Bonsai:

How to Water
Problem Solver
Rock Features:

Masters Pages:

Joe Day
Alabama Bonsai
Bob Langholm - New Zealand
Dan Barton
François Jekker
Ed Trout
Guy Guidry
Jean Paul Polmans
John Armitage
John Yoshio Naka
Georg Reinhard
Howard and Sylvia Smith
John Hanby
Keith Beckett
Koos Le Roux
Patrizia Capellaro
Salvatore Liporace*
Tony and Frank Mihalic
Trevor Smith
Serge Clemence
Rob Atkinson
Mary Madison
Valerio Gianotti
Lit Van Phan
Gary Marchal
Craig Coussins

Penjing - The Art of Chinese Bonsai:
Man Lung, China

Sands and Stands
Ligurian and Other European Stones
Pattern Stones
Rock Formations
Waterfall Stones
Suiseki Images
Chinese Suiseki - Gongshi
Indonesian Suisok
Felix Rivera

Shapes of Suiseki:

Antique Pots
Gordon Duffett
Master Pot Makers Around the Word
How to make a Bonsai Pot

Pots for Bonsai Company*Trade only




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