The construction of a traditional Japanese hanging scroll
Chinese/Japanese Mounting Smoothing
brush range. These are used dry on the top layer of freshly stuck down
paper, that backs a painting or scroll. The wide brush smoothes the
paper giving just the right pressure to flatten the glued paper onto its
base sheet-obtainable from http://www.willsquills.com.au/ChineseBrushes.html#anchor15255
Terminology of Scrolls:
A kakemono (掛物?, "hanging"), more commonly referred to as a kakejiku (掛軸?, "hung scroll"), is a Japanese scroll painting or calligraphy mounted usually with silk fabric edges on a flexible backing, so that it can be rolled for storage.
As opposed to *Makimono, which are meant to be unrolled laterally on a flat surface, like a written scroll (Torah etc) and these are usually long story scrolls that are unrolled to sometimes a great length. I have even seen one at over 35 feet. *A Makimono (jpn. 巻物) is a Japanese hand scroll, an ink-and-brush painting or calligraphy which is supposed to be held in the hand and unrolls horizontally. Makimono were taken to scenic places to enjoy them in a beautiful surrounding, and stored away when home. They were also given as gifts.
However, a kakemono is intended to be hung against a wall as part of the interior decoration of a room. It is traditionally displayed in the tokonoma alcove of a room especially designed for the display of prized objects. When displayed in a chashitsu, or teahouse for the traditional tea ceremony, the choice of the kakemono and its complementary flower arrangement help set the spiritual mood of the ceremony. Often the kakemonoused for this will bear calligraphy of a Zen phrase in the hand of a distinguished Zen master.
In Bonsai , a bonsai is placed on a table or a slab in a Tokonoma with an accent planting or object to one side and the scroll in a position to form a triangle behind. Each, scroll and object/accent plant, is designed to harmonise with the Bonsai.
In contrast to the Makimono, Kakemono is a painting that unrolls vertically and hangs in a recess in a traditional Japanese house or in a teahouse.
The term also refers to maki-zushi.
In contrast to byōbu (folding screen) or shohekiga (wall paintings), kakemono can be easily and quickly changed to match the season or occasion.
The kakemono was introduced to Japan during the Heian period, primarily for displaying Buddhist images for religious veneration, or as a vehicle to display calligraphy or poetry. From the Muromachi period,landscapes, flower and bird paintings, portraiture, and poetry became the favorite themes.
If the width is shorter than the height, it is called a vertical work (竪物 tatemono?) or Standing Scroll (立軸tatejiku?)(needs verification); if the width is longer than the height, it is called a horizontal work (横物yokomono?) or horizontal scroll (横軸 yokojiku?).
The "Maruhyousou" style of kakejiku has four distinct named sections. The top section is called the "ten" heaven. The bottom is the "chi" earth with the "hashira" pillars supporting the heaven and earth on the sides. The maruhyousou style, (not pictured above) also contains a section of "ichimonji" made from "kinran" gold thread.On observation, the Ten is longer than the Chi. This is due to the fact that in the past, Kakemono were viewed from a kneeling (seiza) position and provided perspective to the "Honshi" main work. This tradition carries on to modern times.
There is a cylindrical rod called jikugi (軸木) at the bottom, which becomes the axis or centre of the rolled scroll. The ends on this rod are in themselves called jiku, and while used as grasps when rolling and unrolling the scroll it is still better not to strain these and use the scroll itself to roll and unroll.
Other parts of the scroll include the "jikubo" referenced above as the jikugi. The top half moon shaped wood rod is named the "hassou" to which the "kan" or metal loops are inserted in order to tie the "kakehimo" hanging thread. Attached to the jikubo are the "jikusaki", the term used for the end sections, which can be inexpensive and made of a resin material or beautifully made decorative pieces of ceramic or lacquered wood. Additional decorative wood or ceramic pieces hung on the ends (Jiku / Jikusaki) of scrolls to keep these flat on the wall are called "fuchin" and come with multicoloured tassels.
The variation in the kakehimo, jikusaki and fuchin make each scroll more original and unique. We are designing a new range of Fuchin with their own hand made silk boxes. These new Tokonoma scroll Fuchin will be very beautiful additions to your scroll and should be ready early 2011
Scroll maker: Hyougushi
Japanese calligraphy is perhaps the most artistic form of writing known to man. This is how the Japanese used to write in their local language. The practice of calligraphy by their Chinese counterparts seemed to have had a huge impact on the art form in Japan.
In fact for the longest time the most revered calligrapher of Japan was actually a Chinese man called Wang Xizhi. But this was back in the fourth century. It was not until the Japanese developed their own unique syllabaries such as the hiragana and katakana that the Japanese calligraphy came into a style of their own.
Asyllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. A symbol in a syllabary typically represents an optional consonant sound followed by a vowel sound.
The Japanese language uses two syllabaries together called kana, namely hiragana and katakana (developed around AD 700).
Calligraphy by the Buddhist Monk Shinmou Hara ( 1833-1906)
The halo of the bhaisakyaguru statue in the Horyu-ji Temple is regarded as being the oldest known example of Japanese calligraphic text. This was actually Chinese text which was written in the Shakeitai that had been famous since six dynasties.
The Kongo Jodaranikyo is considered to be the oldest hand copied sutra in Japan. Other typical examples from the same time period are that of the stone in Nasu County and the broken Stone in Uji Bridge. The influence of the northern Wei robust style of calligraphy is apparent on these examples.
The first text that really shows the unique Japanese style of calligraphy is Soukou Shujitsu. The Tanka that was written in 749 shows clearly the distinction between the Chinese style of and the Japanese.
Horyu-ji Temple Nara
The Heian era began with
the reign of Emperor Kammu and the shifting of the capital to Heian Kyo
in 794. Much of the calligraphic work remained unchanged during this
period. The royalty, aristocracy and the court ladies all wrote by
Needless to say the influence of Wang Xizhi was predominant in the calligraphy of the time. There were other Chinese calligraphers that were highly regarded in Japan as well. Alongside however, Japan was slowly but surely developing its own style of calligraphy. The ruling party had realized that Japan was a small and separate entity from China and was in great need of a writing style that was different from that of China. This led to the development of the official Japanese calligraphic style.
Today calligraphy is one
of the elementary subjects taught in schools in Japan. It is one of the
compulsory subjects during primary education and at the higher levels
one has the option to choose between calligraphy, painting and
With the improvements in means of mass communication Japanese calligraphy was exported to the west. The western artists at once fell in love with this poetic form of writing. The calligraphers were especially awe struck by the beauty of Japanese writing. Even artists with a specialization other than calligraphy were known to have learnt the art parallel to their own specialty.
Japanese calligraphy is also considered to be highly fashionable in today’s times. You will be able to find all sorts of fashion accessories and interior decoration items with Japanese calligraphy on them.
Calligraphy Brush set from Shao Zhi Yan, a top brush making factory in China.
Yamatoe is a style of the depiction that had been cultivated under the Japanese indigenous natural features and customs.
Nanga ( Bunjinga )
Nanga ( bunjinga ) was a school of Japanese painting in the late edo period, had been influenced by Chinese literati painting. Nanga ( bunjinga ) painter almost always depicted Chinese subjects such as landscapes, birds, flowers and other, with having admiration for traditional Chinese culture.
Tosa school is a school of Japanese painting "Yamatoe", was founded in Heian period ( 15th century ).
Painting with Chinese poem, a traditional style of Oriental painting
Original box, usually made of paulownia wood, that holds a hanging scroll. On the lid are the title of work and signature inscribed by the artist.
Box, usually made of paulownia, that holds a hanging scroll. The lid is not inscribed with the title of work or signature by the artist.
Outer box that holds an inner box containing a hanging scroll. In most cases a lacquered paulownia box.
To mount a work of art onto a hanging scroll or byobu screen using traditional techniques and materials (mainly silk fabric, washi paper, and starch paste). “Hyougu” sometimes refers to the decorative surface around the work.
Silk fabric or brocade with gold foil woven into it
Burnished silk fabric, made from raw silk.
Condition of Scroll or painting
Kou / Very Good
Otsu / Good
Hei / Slightly damaged in fair condition and with artistic merit
Tei / Damaged but has adequate artistic merit